March 15, 2011

ESLO Fact Sheet for Scottsdale Arizona

Latest Revisions Approved
Minor Amendments to ESL (Effective Mar 22, 2007)

Restoration of Damaged Desert Areas (Effective Mar 22, 2007)

Side Yard Setbacks for properties zoned ESL (Effective October 26, 2006)

Undeveloped lot with an ESL overlay?
The city has recently developed an instructional diagram that demonstrates how to determine the buildable lot area.

The Environmentally Sensitive Lands Ordinance (ESLO) is a set of zoning regulations adopted by the City Council in 1991 (amended in 2001, 2003 and 2004) to guide development throughout the 134 square miles of desert and mountain areas of Scottsdale. These areas are located north and east of the Central Arizona Project canal.

Key Resources

The most recent City Council adopted changes to the ESL Ordinance became effective March 22, 2007.

Citizens Guide to ESL


ESLO Ordinance Text(pdf/115kb/28pp)

ESLO History

Exemption Schedule

Exterior Lighting for Single-Family in ESL

Design Standards & Policies Manual
Wash Modifications
Hardship Exemptions
Indigenous Plant List for ESL

List of Protected Native Plants

What is NAOS?

NAOS Forms (Easements,
Modification, Enhancement, etc)

We’re Here to Help
Don’t know who to call, where to start… staff is available to personally answer your questions and respond to specific questions.

Call 480-312-7800 or email

The intent and purpose of the ESLO is to identify and protect environmentally sensitive lands in the City and to promote public health and safety by controlling development on these lands. The ordinance requires that a percentage of each property be permanently preserved as natural area open space and that specific environmental feature, including vegetation, washes, mountain ridges and peaks, be protected from inappropriate development.

Community Benefit
The ESLO has a direct impact on the citizens of Scottsdale as its key provisions determine the location and design of residential, commercial, industrial and institutional development in two-thirds of the City. Application of the ESLO, and its predecessor the Hillside Ordinance, has resulted in the preservation of over 9,000 acres of Sonoran Desert open space while protecting our citizens from
potential flooding, erosion and visual blight.

Staff Contacts:
•Kira Wauwie, 480-312-7061 or

Exterior and Site Lighting Design Guidelines for Scottsdale AZ

•Exterior Lighting for Single-Family in Environmentally Senstive Lands (ESL) Areas
•Illuminance Tables
•Submittal Requirements
•Printable Lighting Guidelines (pdf/48kb/2pp)
•Ambient Lighting Zones (pdf/319kb/1p)
•Streetlight Policy Plan (pdf/208kb/1p)
•Outdoor Lighting Code (pdf/115kb/2pp)

Please note: The 2006 International Energy Conservation Code (IECC) was adopted by reference via the International Building Code (IBC) adoption.

Encourage quality site lighting design while providing a sense of safety and security by reducing excessive light levels, light trespass, and glare.

•The use of lighting should be integrally designed as part of the built environment and should reflect a balance for the lighting needs with the contextual ambient light level and surrounding nighttime characteristics of our community. Recommended light level guidelines and uniformity ratios established be the Illumination Engineering Society of North America (IESNA), in the IESNA Lighting Handbook (current edition), should be considered when determining appropriate lighting design solutions. All exterior lighting design require the approval of the Development Review Board (DRB)
•Lighting designs should be designed to minimize glare, light trespass, energy conservation, and to maintain dark skies. The lighting designers should consider utilizing pre-curfew and post-curfew lighting designs with automatic controls systems to eliminate excessive light during nonactive hours of site and building operation.
•Full cut-off fixtures, mounting heights, and shielding should be utilized to effectively control glare and light trespass.
•Any exterior lighting designs shall take into account all exterior lighting sources.
•Architectural lighting if proposed shall be included with the DRB application. Architectural lighting if proposed should only be utilized to highlight special features. Lighting of expansive wall planes, towers, and roofs or the use of architectural lighting that results in “hot spots” should be avoided.
•Landscape lighting if proposed shall be included with the DRB application. Landscape lighting should only be utilized to accent landscaping, be point away from the property line, and fixtures shall contain extension shields in minimize glare and light source visibility.

Illuminance Recommendations
Ambient Light Level * Recommended Maintained Footcandles
(based on IESNA RP-20-98)
(horizontal fc measured at grade)


E-1 – Intrinsically Dark Areas 1

E-2 – Estate/Rural Areas 1.5

E-3 – Suburban Areas 2

E-4 – Urban/Pedestrian Activity Areas 2.5

Light Trespass Limitations
Ambient Light Level * Recommended Footcandles
(IESNA RP-33-99)
(vertical fc measured 6′ above grade at property line)

E-1 – Intrinsically Dark Areas 0.1

E-2 – Estate/Rural Areas 0.3

E-3 – Suburban Areas 0.8

E-4 – Urban/Pedestrian Activity Areas 1.5

* Refer to Design Standards and Policies Manual for general Environmental Zone Locations (E-#). These locations are a guide, but are not conclusive and are subject to the approval of the Development Review Board.


Exterior Lighting

All exterior fixture lighting manufacture cut sheets (to be provided on 24”x36” paper). Each cut sheet shall clearly identify the light fixture manufacture number utilized, the plan cross-reference identification, and be legible. (State law prohibits Mercury Vapor lighting.)

•Plan identification symbol or abbreviation
•Fixture graphic
•Fixture type
•Fixture add-ons if utilize
•Lamp type utilized
•All photometric data
•Candela distribution curve

1.Photometrics plans shall be provided for the entire site addressing Zoning Ordinance, ZN, UP, DRB, Design Guidelines, and the Staff Policy for Site Lighting. Additional information may be required by staff after they have evaluated the design.
2.There is a minimum of two photometric studies required for each project. They are (1) the horizontal illuminance on the site, and (2) the vertical light trespass around the perimeter of the site. Each plan requires the following information:
a.A point-by-point foot-candle reading. The horizontal photometric plan grid points, utilizing distinctive grip point symbols (example: *), shall have a maximum spacing of 10’-0” between each point across the entire site, and 10’-0” past the property line. The vertical photometric plan grid point shall be provided only along the property line with a maximum spacing of 10’-0” between each point.
b.A foot-candle reading shall also be provided under at least one of each light fixture type.
c.The plan shall include the lighting templates generated by the lighting design software program to calculate the foot-candle readings. The template shall be for the fixture and lamp specified on the plans. The plan’s fixture type identification shall match the cut sheets, electrical site plans, and the lighting schedule. This information shall be provided in a summary table.
d.The plan shall identify the initial maximum, minimum, and average illuminance on the horizontal photometric plan and vertical photometric plan.
e.The plan shall identify the total maintained maintenance (light loss) factor utilized.
3.The total maintained light loss factor for all horizontal photometric analysis shall not be below 0.70. Plans shall only include one horizontal reading across the entire site. Only the building footprint shall masked out from the reading. (Acceptable additional horizontal reading grids may be: gas station canopies, ATM drive-thrus, walk-up ATMs, and parking garage entries/exits. When separate grids are utilized on the same plan, a separate grid symbol (example: %) must be utilized, and a separate maintained maximum, minimum, average illuminance shall be provide for the grid.)
4.The Light Trespass plan (vertical illuminance) shall provide point-by-point foot-candle readings 6’-0” above grade along the entire property line, with the reader at 90-degrees nadir and aimed perpendicular into the site. All light trespass plans reading shall be based on the initial illuminance, 1.00.
5.The horizontal illuminance photometric plan, and the vertical light trespass plan may be combined into one sheet if the readings utilize distinctive symbols, a separate summary table for all fixtures utilized, and separate total light loss factures utilized.
6.The Photometrics plan shall provide a lighting fixture summary table that presents the following information:
a.Plan identification symbol or abbreviation
b.Fixture type (include the manufacture product identification catalog number)
c.Lamp type (include the manufacture product identification catalog number and wattage)
d.Lamp Lumens
e.Lamp degree Kelvin
f.Fixture lens height above lowest adjacent finished grade
g.Total Light loss facture utilized.

Scottsdale ESLO regulations.

Single-Family in ESL
Exterior and Site Lighting Design Guidelines

Exterior lighting includes any lighting that is mounted outside of livable building areas such as in landscaping, parking areas, along walkways and paths, on the outside of building walls, under eaves and patio covers, under open shed covers and within 3 feet of the openings in buildings where the opening is not regularly closed (such as breezeways and entry courts.

•Zoning Interpretation Regarding Exterior Lighting in ESL (pdf/282kb/2pp)

To achieve low scale requirements exterior lighting can either be:

1.low in physical height, i.e. mounted or placed generally below eye level (6 feet), or
2.low in lighting intensity, i.e. the maximum capacity of the lighting fixture is 50 watts for incandescent and florescent lighting sources, 25 watts for halogen, 10 watts for metal halide, and 1 watt for LED lighting sources.

To insure minimum light pollution, reduce glare and minimize light trespass onto neighboring properties – Exterior lighting is to be directed downward, recessed or shielded so that:

1.the opening for the light is directed down, not sideways;
2.the lighting source is hidden from view from off the property by the fixture design or by building structures such as fascia on an eave, walls, pillars, etc.; and
3.the lighting fixture includes a device or feature such as vanes, louvers, fins, etc. that direct the light downward.

To eliminate light trespass

•Exterior lighting must shield the light bulb so it cannot be seen from residential development (properties zoned R or used as residential) or from public viewpoints.
•Translucent and colored glass are not viable options unless the opacity fully blurs or hides the shape and nature of the light source.
•Public viewpoints include public or private streets, public schools or parks, and any open space accessible to the public.

Generally Acceptable: Generally NOT Acceptable:
•Soffit-mounted lighting;
•Bollard lighting with opaque caps;
•Fixtures with lenses of shield that focus lighting in one specific direction (with less than a 45 degree spread);
•Light sconces that direct downward only or are placed under an eave; and
•In-ground landscape lighting
•Open bulb fixtures;
•Fixtures with clear or nearly clear glass or plastic faces;
•Fixtures with lenses that scatter lights; and
•Flood lights

The following exceptions apply:
1.Any exterior lighting that is visible only from properties zoned and used for commercial, office, industrial or utility purposes;
2.Low voltage (12v – 15 watt maximum) landscape lighting systems;
3.Lighting located within a fully enclosed courtyard and placed below the height of the surrounding building or walls;
4.Recreational facility lighting; and
5.5) Security lighting that is activated by motion sensors, is on for no more than 15 minutes, and is located where it does not come on frequently due to regular outdoor traffic or activity.


November 16, 2010

Solar lighting, with L.E.D outdoor light fixtures

Solar powerd outdoor lighting fixtures. NO this is not a home depot solar light. This is a state of the art solar panel, with battery back up for all your outdoor lighting needs. We can now power your L.E.D. lights, up to 20 fixtures, with a high end solar panel. 4.5 watts per fixture gives you the same as 20 watt halagin lamp.
Call now so i can design your solar system with you.

July 27, 2010

FaceBook members………..

If you are a FaceBook member, please search me on FaceBook @ North Star Outdoor Lighting LLC to receive valibule discounts. 10-15% off on new systems, and 10% off on repairs.

June 17, 2010


Problem Cause Solution
No power at plug Tripped breaker or GFI Reset circuit breaker in main panel or the GFI usually located in a bathroom, garage or kitchen.
GFI keeps tripping Ground problem or defective GFI GFI’s are notorious for nuisance tripping. Use a high grade model such as the Hubbell #GF5252I.
Transformer is cycling on & off at night Excessive wattage load or short Reduce lamp wattage, fixture quantity or increase size of Transformer. See shorting solution below.
PhotoCell Transformer is cycling on & off in the daytime Photocell wiring incorrect Reverse the hot and common wires on the Photocell 120v input. Request wiring schematic for proper wiring.
One cable run not working Cut cable or short Test cable for voltage – if none then it is cut – if there is very low voltage and the cable is hot then there is a short. Check all fixtures and splices for defects.
Lamps are burning out prematurely Excessive voltage at lamp Drop the affected cable run down to the next lower voltage tap or increase wattage load on that cable to drop voltage. Also, some lamps are rated for a very short life such as the 4414 (300 hours). Use halogen lamps.
The closest lamp to the transformer is burning out prematurely Excessive voltage at lamp The closest lamp will always have a higher voltage reading than the last lamp. Cable fixtures so that there is about 40′ from first to last within a lighting zone. See System Layout for details. If there is only one lamp (fixture) very close to the transformer then use 16 gauge cable to run to it only. This will help by creating voltage loss caused by the resistance from the skinny cable.
Lamps have a yellow or golden tone Voltage too low Move affected cable to the next higher voltage tap or reduce load on cable. If possible run additional cable to first fixture to reduce voltage loss.
Lamp goes on and off when fixture is moved Too much tension on socket leads With spring type sockets it is important to leave some slack so the socket contacts make a good connection to the lamp base. This is a common problem on the Tree / Trellis Spots where the installer doesn’t leave any slack in the socket lead wires coming out of the back of the fixture then he tries to adjust the beam angle thereby yanking the contacts off the socket base.
All of the lights on the system are getting dimmer with age Splices are corroding As non-waterproof splices corrode they create electrical resistance which reduces voltage. To fix simply dig up all splices on the project and waterproof them with FX LiteSplice&™ or equal. Black tape don’t get it!!
Photocell Transformer is coming on too soon Transformer is in dark location In order to operate properly the photocell must have a good look at daylight. Move to a brighter location.
Fixtures have a white mineral deposit on them Irrigation water is hitting them when they’re on – like washing a car in the hot sun To avoid having mineral build-up schedule the irrigation to come on after the lights have gone off. This is especially true with the 50w spots – very hot. To remove the deposits use Lime Away bathroom cleaner or equal.
The fixtures are corroding and my client is about to kill me!! Inferior metals and finish Next time buy your clients the best engineered and built components available – FX!

ANNUAL OR SEMI-ANNUAL MAINTENANCE CHECKS. Monthly maintenance for lamps!!!!!!

Typical of most every mechanical appliance, the components of the landscape lighting system will require periodic maintenance in order to keep the system operating at peak performance. The wise Lighting Installer will incorporate a Lighting Maintenance Program into his or her offering. Maintenance will typically include lamp replacement, fixture, transformer and cable inspection, cleaning and repair.


Lamp maintenance should be performed regularly as voltage to lamps will increase as lamps burn out, thus accelerating the burnout of the remaining lamps. The type of lamps installed and their average lamp life, the operating voltage at the lamps and the length of time each lamp operated each day will determine the lamp maintenance schedule.

Lamp Type Average Lamp Life
Incandescent 900 – 1200 hours.
Halogen 2000 – 4000 hrs
Xenolux 8000 hrs

Average Lamp Life is based on lamps receiving 12 volts. Lamps fed 11 volts will burn up to 3 times longer. Lamps fed 14 volts will burn out 7 times quicker than normal. If lamps seem to be burning out prematurely, test the voltage at the fixtures to make sure the lamp is not receiving excessive voltage.

Since different lamp types will burn out at different rates, it is best to include a maintenance schedule that will allow for frequent visits.


Start fixture maintenance by removing lens caps and blowing the bugs and cobwebs out of the lamp and socket housing with compressed air.

Fixture maintenance should include cleaning of lenses and repositioning and/or re-aiming the fixture. As plant material grows, it will become necessary to reposition and re-aim the fixture in order to maintain its function. Be sure to leave extra cable at each fixture location during installation to allow for repositioning of the fixture in the future!

Maintenance can also include the cleaning of powder coated fixtures by spraying them with a Windex-type agent and wiping clean with a damp rag. Clean bird droppings off copper and brass fixtures, otherwise, let them patina naturally.

Uplite Fixture lenses will become “frosted” over time if subject to a continuous flow of irrigation water. Apply “Rain-X” to the lens cover to help minimize the calcification of the cap. If fogged, clean water deposits with Lime Away or Efferdent Denture Cleaner.

Powder coated fixtures should be cleaned by spraying a Windex-type cleaner and wiping clean with a damp rag. Clean dropping off copper and brass fixtures, otherwise, let them patina naturally.

Fixture maintenance should also include the repair or replacement of broken or damaged stakes and mounting options. If repositioned uplight fixtures create “glare”, add a hex baffle to minimize the nuisance.

Straighten all Pathlights. Crooked pathlight fixtures are a visual annoyance!


Blow out the bugs and cobwebs with canned compressed air.

Check for corrosion.

Apply a corrosion prevention sealer to all sockets.

If socket shows advanced signs of corrosion, it is wise to re-socket the fixture.


If bugs or debris has collected in the Transformer cabinet, blow out the rubbish with compressed air.

Tighten each Common and Voltage Tap Lug as they can vibrate loose over time.

Check Amperage on each Common Lug. (maximum amperage = 25 amps/per common)

Check all switching mechanisms and adjust timers if necessary.


Check and test all GFCI receptacles, receptacle cover plates

Check all visible electrical connections, J-Boxes, switches, etc.


Inspect all exposed cable for nicks and wear. Repair or replace if necessary.

Closely inspect cable and cable ties in trees for girdling.

If cable ties are used to attach cable to trees, replace ties annually.

Inspect exposed cable for animal damage. Squirrels, rabbits and other creatures are known to chew on cable like licorice!

If cable connections are not fully waterproof, replace with a waterproof connection. Non-waterproof connectors will allow moisture to creep into the copper cable. Eventually, a corrosive build up within the cable will cause increased voltage drop and a dimming of the lamp’s performance!


As plants and trees grow, repositioning of fixtures or trimming of plant material will become necessary. Be sure to include this service in the lighting maintenance package and do not leave it up to the landscape maintenance crew to perform this task for you! You are the lighting artisan and know what effect each fixture is designed to perform.

Upon completion of the System Maintenance, attach an ID sticker on the inside of the Transformer with your company name, phone number, date of service and name of service technician as a courtesy to your customer. Drop off your bill for the services performed and pull out your planner to schedule the next system.

Top 10 mistakes in lighting,

Don’t own a volt meter – Trying to install anything electrical without a digital volt meter is like trying to install an irrigation system without a shovel or to eat soup with a fork – it can be done but having the right tools makes it a lot easier.

With proper planning and cabling, lighting can truly be done in phases. Also, don’t determine what the client should spend on lighting; present the options and let him decide the value of light.

A lighting layout must reflect the different uses a well-designed landscape will provide: i.e., entertaining, at home alone, or away from home. There are some areas (BBQ) you should light only when they’re in use.

We don’t care what brand you use; just make sure the connection is waterproof (no black tape…please!). Poor system performance results when splices corrode, creating electrical resistance.

Trying to illuminate large areas / objects with too few fixtures of large wattage results in nasty glare and unbalanced effect. The neat thing about 12v fixtures is their micro size allowing them to be installed anywhere.

Layout logistics rule of thumb: 100′ / 100 watts per 12 gauge cable. To minimize voltage loss and add functionality to the project, insist on having adequate 120v outlets for transformers, catering and other outdoor functions.

Clients always add lights; they rarely delete lights. Leave room on the transformer size for that eventuality. Also, our RS-20 can be upgraded to an RS-35 with a simple lamp change.

Use vertical elements to downlight (moonlight), area light or trellis light. This is the most efficient and elegant type of lighting; it’s also the most under-used. This effect gets fixtures out of harm’s way.

Regardless of brand, fixtures prefer not to be mowed, fertilized or watered. When possible, use downlights or wall lights instead of pathlights or place them in planter areas only.

To minimize maintenance, use well lights only in turf areas; use regular spotlights or LiteGuards™ in planter areas. The subterranean environment create the most maintenance problems – avoid it if possible.

May 31, 2010

Area’s of work, and all of Arizona.


North Scottsdale
85254 85255
85258 85259
85260 85262
85264 85266

Rio Verde

Paradise Valley
85018 85253


North Phoenix
85050 85054

Fountain Hills



May 18, 2010

Lighting term glossery. Hope this helps!

Ambient Light Lighting throughout a space that produces general illumination.
Ampere (amp) Unit to express the flow quantity of electricity. Analogous to gallons per minute.
Baffle An accessory that prevents light from producing glare at certain angles.
Ballast Auxiliary unit used with HID lamps to provide the power to start the lamp and regulate the voltage, current & waveform while it is in use. A ballast is required for each HID lamp.
Brightness A negative term associated with glare producing luminaries.
Bulb Layman’s term for “lamp”.
Candela The basic unit of measurement of luminous intensity from a light source in a specific direction.
Circuit Breaker A switching device that can be manually operated that automatically opens (switches off) when more than the rated current passes through. Generally rated in amps. A typical residential circuit breaker is 15 or 20 amps.
Color Temperature An expression of light source color or whiteness, stated in degrees Kelvin. Warmer (more yellow) light has a lower color temperature and cooler light (more blue) has a higher color temperature.
Conductor A metallic material that has low resistance to electrical flow such as copper. A circuit must have at least 2 conductors.
Efficacy (efficiency) A measurement of how many lumens a lamp produces per watt consumed.
Fixture Layman’s term for “luminaire”.
Floodlighting Indiscriminate lighting of an area usually associated with security or utility functions.
Footcandle (fc) A unit of measurement of luminescence. For reference: an office desktop typically has 50-75 fc of light falling on it if lit from overhead fluorescent lamps. A primary focal point tree in a residential garden should have about 5 fc average on it
Fluorescent A low-pressure lamp that has a phosphor coating that transforms ultraviolet energy into light. Although efficient they are physically very large.
FX Term to describe Lighting Effects – generally used in theatrical applications. Also the manufacturer of some great lighting components.
Gauge A measurement of electrical conductor (wire or cable) size. The lower the number, the thicker the cable. 8-gauge cable is twice the size of 12-gauge.
Glare A negative term describing uncontrolled light that produces discomfort to the viewer.
Ground A non-current carrying metallic connection to earth. All 120v circuits must be grounded – 12v circuits do not. The green wire on a 120v circuit is typically the ground.
Ground Fault Interrupter (GFI) A device that detects abnormal current patterns and shuts off power. GFI’s are always required on outdoor circuits.
Halogen See Tungsten-Halogen Lamp.
Hard Light Light that produces very high contrast such as the grazing effect
High Intensity Discharge (HID) A lamp that produces light when electricity excites different gases within a pressurized glass envelope. HID lamps include mercury vapor, metal halide and high-pressure sodium types. See also Ballasts.
High Pressure Sodium Lamp An HID lamp that produces light from sodium vapor, producing a distinctly yellowish color. Used widely as streetlights.
Hot The conductor or surface that has voltage present. A hot and a common or neutral creates an electrical circuit.
Illuminance The amount of light striking a surface or object, measured in footcandles or lumens.
Incandescent Lamp A lamp that produces light when electricity heats a tungsten metal filament.
Lamp Technical term for “bulb”.
Line Voltage Generally means 120 volts.
Low Pressure Sodium Lamp An HID lamp that produces light from sodium vapor, producing a distinctly pinkish color. Used for streetlights and security.
Low-voltage Lighting A general term given to a system that is powered by a step-down transformer that reduces a 120v power input to a 12v output.
Lumen The unit of measurement for the amount of light emitted by a lamp. One lumen per square foot is one footcandle.
Luminaire Technical term for “fixture”. A complete lighting unit consisting of a lamp holder, lens and adjustable components.
Mercury Vapor Lamp An HID lamp that produces light by radiation from mercury vapor. Mercury lamps have a distinct blue-green color and are a popular moonlight source for very large trees in commercial environments. Some folks think this type of lamp makes everything look ghoulish.
Metal Halide Lamps An HID lamp that produces light by radiation from metallic vapors. This type of HID lamp has the most neutral color rendering effect so it is appropriate for very large-scale color sensitive uplighting.
Neutral A conductor that is common to other circuits and carries no current.
Ohm A measurement of electrical resistance that causes voltage loss in circuits. Also, the name of the dead dude that invented electricity.
PAR Lamp Parabolic aluminized reflector lamp or sealed beam lamp. Generally used for auto signal or headlights.
Quality of Lighting A description of the aesthetic appearance of an illuminated environment indicating the use and control of light sources.
Reflectance A measure of the amount of light that strikes a surface that is reflected. Light-colored smooth surfaces have a high reflectance.
Resistance Measured in ohms – analogous to friction in hydraulics. A measurement of the restriction of the free flow of electrons in electrical conductors. Copper has a low resistance making it a good conductor – Glass has a high resistance making it a good insulator.
Short Circuit An unwanted flow of current between two conductors causing the circuit breaker to trip.
Shield An opaque unit that shields a light source from direct view at certain angles. See also Glare
Task Lighting The function of providing illumination for specific purposes such as recreation or utility.
Transformer An electrical device used to step down 120-volt current to 12-volt current for use on low-voltage lighting systems. A transformer provides roughly 1/10th of the input power.
Tungsten-Halogen Lamp A type of incandescent lamp containing a tungsten filament within a pressurized quartz envelope, which is filled with halogen gas. Also referred to as a quartz or halogen lamp. The halogen gas recycles the burned off tungsten particles back onto the filament thereby dramatically extending the lamp life. Generally smaller and more energy efficient than 120v incandescent lamps.
Volt (V) Unit to describe the electrical force that causes current to flow – analogous to PSI in hydraulics.
Volt-Ampere (VA) A measurement of consumption. Volts x Amps = Watts. Most transformers’ wattage ratings are expressed in VA.
Watt (W) Unit of electrical consumption. See Volt-Ampere. Don’t confuse wattage with light output – light is expressed in lumens or footcandles. Ex: heat lamps consume a lot of wattage but produce little light.

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